Even having left-handed relatives was shown to influence the directionality of the drawings.
We already touched on this when dealing with the definition of directionality, but complex images such as photographs present particular difficulties, as they contain many elements that might suggest directionality, as well as many other aesthetical considerations McManus et al.
As for the landscapes, the Japanese readers showed a preference for landscapes with a rightward directionality, whereas English readers showed no preference.
Brain Res. Maass et al.
Most studies utilize stimuli that they define as directional according to varying criteria. Firstly, there is the matter of embodiment. Related to brain lateralization, handedness has been shown to be a factor Levy, ; Freimuth and Wapner, ; Beaumont, ; Christman and Pinger, ; De Agostini and Chokron, ; De Agostini et al.
Another study is the one conducted by Nachson et al.
The authors themselves note the similarity of these findings with those of Chokron and De Agostiniand state that their contribution was to show that the observed phenomenon extended to Japanese readers. Another attempt to resolve this controversy was conducted by Liu et al. Elginand contextualism, which holds that the contextual features of the work, such as its author, are part of its identity Gregory Currie.
Author Contributions AP is the main author, and has written the bulk of the text.