Sufferers have severe dyspnea shortness of breath and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer.
It is also an excellent example how crucially important national fundamental science funding is. Therefore, changes in respiration associated with these and other important human activities must be measured or otherwise taken into account before the health effects of air quality can be satisfactorily related to measurements of pollutant concentration.
In principle, the results are applicable only to the data used to produce the model.
Few personal monitoring studies have been undertaken for O3. In most cases, however, there is not enough information to determine which microenvironments are adequately defined, which can be bypassed or lumped with others, which should be subdivided, and which should have their limits altered to ensure accurate exposure estimates.
Respiration rate and mode are important determinants of air pollutant dose and therefore affect the health consequences of a measured exposure. Our plastic addiction and waste mismanagement is condemning countless marine birds and animals to death by entanglement or poisoning, and even leading to chemical contamination of the fish we eat.
A few studies also were carried out to examine exposures to Pb and O3. Direct measurements of personal exposure are straightforward but costly, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. However, the availability of biological exposure markers does not obviate the need for measurements of air pollution concentrations.
These exploratory studies indicated that fixed-site, outdoor monitors do not adequately estimate human exposure to most air pollutants, and that accurate extrapolation to people beyond the sample population often is not possible.
The changes in respiration associated with repose, exercise, standing, sitting, sleeping, talking, and other important human activities should be measured or estimated.