Machiavelli's judgment that democracies need religion for practical political reasons was widespread among modern proponents of republics until approximately the time of the French Revolution.
Moreover the said secretary stated that her Excellency was in doubt what course to take, and therefore could not give a prompt reply. On a diplomatic mission to RomeCastiglione met Francesco Gonzaga's brother-in-law, Guidobaldo da MontefeltroDuke of Urbinohusband of Francesco's sister Elizabetta Gonzaga ; and ina reluctant Francesco allowed Castiglione to leave and take up residence in that court.
While interest in Plato was increasing in Florence during Machiavelli's lifetime, Machiavelli does not show particular interest in him, but was indirectly influenced by his readings of authors such as PolybiusPlutarch and Cicero.
The charges were dismissed for lack of evidence, and there is speculation that since one of the accused, Lionardo de Tornabuoni, was related to Lorenzo de' Medicithe family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal. All men fall somewhere along a scale between these extremes.
It is noticeable, however, that though skill in fighting is insisted on at the outset as a requisite for the Italian courtier, it is scarcely alluded to in the rest of the book.
Giuliano de' Medici agrees that for the courtier music is not just an ornament but a necessity, as it is indeed for men and women in all walks of life. Pocockin the so-called "Cambridge School" of interpretation, have asserted that some of the republican themes in Machiavelli's political works, particularly the Discourses on Livycan be found in medieval Italian literature which was influenced by classical authors such as Sallust.
Although he privately circulated The Prince among friends, the only theoretical work to be printed in his lifetime was The Art of Warwhich was about military science. But I presume from his last remarks that many days will not pass before he will ask you to start your troops, although those of the king of France may not yet have stirred; for it has been intimated to him to avail himself of these only in case of necessity, and not otherwise, because of the heavy expense which they would involve, and also to avoid incurring the hostility of this country, which seems so well disposed towards him.
Empiricism and realism versus idealism[ edit ] Machiavelli is sometimes seen as the prototype of a modern empirical scientist, building generalizations from experience and historical facts, and emphasizing the uselessness of theorizing with the imagination.
The experience would, like Machiavelli's time in foreign courts and with the Borgia, heavily influence his political writings. It is thought that he did not learn Greek even though Florence was at the time one of the centers of Greek scholarship in Europe.